Adverse perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy: results from two nationwide registries in Germany


Tatjana P. Liedtke, Katharina S. Weber, Heinke Adamczewski, Dietmar Weber, Babett Ramsauer, Ute M. Schaefer-Graf, Tanja Groten, Eike A. Strathmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Mario Rüdiger, Ulrich Pecks, Helmut J. Kleinwechter




BMJ open diabetes research & care




INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a known independent risk factor for a severe course of COVID-19. The relationship of SARS-CoV-2 infection and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on neonatal outcomes is unclear. Our aim was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 infection represents an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancy with GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared data from two German registries including pregnant women with GDM, established during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19-Related Obstetric and Neonatal Outcome Study (CRONOS), a multicenter prospective observational study) and already existing before the pandemic (German registry of pregnant women with GDM; GestDiab). In total, 409 participants with GDM and SARS-CoV-2 infection and 4598 participants with GDM, registered 2018-2019, were eligible for analyses. The primary fetal and neonatal outcomes were defined as: (1) combined: admission to neonatal intensive care unit, stillbirth, and/or neonatal death, and (2) preterm birth before 37+0 weeks of gestation. Large and small for gestational age, maternal insulin therapy, birth weight >4500 g and cesarean delivery were considered as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were younger (32 vs 33 years) and had a higher median body mass index (28 vs 27 kg/m²). In CRONOS, more neonates developed the primary outcome (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.97) and were born preterm (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.10). Fasting glucose was higher in women in CRONOS versus GestDiab (5.4 vs 5.3 mmol/L) considering each 0.1 mmol/L increase was independently associated with a 5% higher risk of preterm birth among women in CRONOS only (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: GDM with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes as compared with GDM without SARS-CoV-2 infection.