Dietary patterns associated with inflammatory biomarkers in a Northern German population
Janett Barbaresko, Johanna Rienks, Kolade Oluwagbemigun, Gunnar Jacobs, Wolfgang Lieb, Matthias Laudes, Ute Nothlings
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to derive overall and sex-specific dietary patterns associated with inflammatory biomarkers in a general population sample from Northern Germany. METHODS: The present analysis included 1158 participants (477 men, 681 women, mean age: 53.1 years; mean body mass index: 26.2 kg/m(2)) of the Food Chain Plus (FoCus) cohort in Kiel, Germany. Participants completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Reduced rank regression with C-reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as response variables was used to derive dietary patterns. After a mean follow-up of 1.7 years, a second blood sample was obtained in a subsample of 112 individuals. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns at baseline and inflammatory biomarkers at follow-up. RESULTS: The overall pattern characterised by high intakes of soft drinks, meat, potatoes and sauce, and low intakes of other cereals (except pasta/rice), wine, nuts, seeds, vegetarian dishes, vegetable oil, and fish was positively associated with CRP (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.12, 4.35) and IL-6 (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.26, 7.87) at follow-up. In men, the dietary pattern was higher in soft drinks, processed meat and low in cereals and plant-based fats. In women, the pattern was characterised by soft drinks, meat, vegetables and low in other cereals, wine, nuts, and seeds. The association between sex-specific patterns with inflammatory biomarkers was weaker for CRP. CONCLUSION: We identified dietary patterns positively associated with established biomarkers of chronic low-grade inflammation.